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起草有限責任公司經營合同

一所有限責任公司(LLP)的經營合同和公司(Corporate)章程是相似的。這兩件文檔都爲您公司業務的營運所下定義。經營合同闡明有限責任公司的内部條款,包括各方的權益,義務與職責。在結成公司時,經營合同應該放映各方獨特的目標,生意計劃,公司和員工的文化。以下是您公司起草經營合同時,您需要考慮的四個重要問題。

1. 爲什麽我會需要經營合同呢?

經營合同能清楚地限定公司應當怎樣運行。擁有一份經營合同不僅能夠確保您衹有有限的責任,以保護您的個人財產,經營合同更能夠避免公司所有人之間的誤會與矛盾。如果您的公司沒有經營合同, 公司的内部指導法規便自動遵守每個州自己的有限責任公司法案。這些州立法案的指導法規不一定適合您的公司,所以一份量身打造的經營合同才能更好地保護您的利益。

2. 日常的商業決策是由誰來做主呢?

很多州的法定條文和普遍公司的經營合同都一公司成員的股份來計算成員有多少決定權。雖然這個框架好像很公平,每個公司的需求是不一樣的。比如説,有的成員可能投資比較多,但投資比較少的成員比較懂行。這樣的話,還是讓比較專業和懂行的成員來做主商業決策和做其他的日常決定比較好,所以比較懂行的成員應該有多一點的決定權。

另外,如果公司成員的不同意見扯平,或達不到協議,公司應該用什麽程序來做決定也是很重要的。一般來説,如果兩個人合夥做生意并結成的有限責任公司,兩個人的決定權是一樣大的。如果兩個人的意見不和,一個”扯平條款”能夠幫忙解決不分勝負的問題。打比方說,一個兩人公司如果沒有達到一致同意,公司開銷就不被批准。如果兩個合夥人在一個開銷上達不成協議,公司業務就被影響了。準備一條 “扯平條款”能確保在需要的情況下,合夥人的生意關係和氣,也免得浪費訴訟費用。

3. 如果一名成員想要賣掉他/她的股份怎麽辦?
如果您的生意興隆,成員可能會想要賣掉屬於他們的一部分,或全部的股份牟利。若沒另外標出,普遍的經營合同通常都會允許成員自由轉讓他們在有限責任公司的股份。雖然這對想要買股份的成員來説是好消息,對留下來的成員來説,就代表他們能要接受一個他們不認識,或不喜歡的新合作人。公司業主可以考慮一些途徑來解決這個問題。一個途徑是在經營合同里闡明轉讓須經其他現有成員批准。這個途徑可以限制一名成員買股份的自由。

4.如果一名成員想要推出怎麽辦?

處理成員退股的問題應該是看每個公司自己的情況而定的。一個途徑是在經營合同里闡明成員退股須經其他成員一致批准。若想要否認這條條款,唯一的辦法是讓法院解除整個公司。這個極端的後果通常是大家都不想要的。所以這個條款能夠鼓勵成員私下交涉和談判以解決問題。這個途徑的缺點是想退出的成員有可能用訴訟的辦法來施壓,讓其他成員批准他/她的退出。這樣的結果費錢又費時間。

另外一個途徑是在您的經營協議里加上一句”寫入選擇”。寫入選擇可以讓一名成員從公司推出,并收取他/她的股份當時的市場價值。這個途徑好像最公平,可是如果公司是服務性質的就不合適了。當人工減少時,有限責任公司的現金流動也有可能減少,讓并購的付款變得困難。

相比以上的選擇,營業合同也可以用”尋找賣家”的途徑。這個途徑包括放鬆經營合同里轉讓的限制,包括優先權。如果一名成員想要退股,此成員需要找第三方來買下他/她的股份。如果那名成員找不到買家,公司(或其他成員)可以選擇并購想要退股成員的股份。這條途徑允許現有的成員來決定同不同意第三方來加入現有的生意,同時也給予想要退股的成員取回他/她投資的所值的機會。

有限責任公司經營合同應有的條款:

有限責任公司經營合同隨公司而變,可有幾條重要的條款是大多經營合同都有的。這些條款包括:

  • 每名成員擁有股份的百分比(%)
  • 每名成員的權利與責任
  • 詳細計劃闡明收益與損失將如果分佈
  • 公司的管理計劃
  • 會議和投票的規矩

• 并買或買賣規矩來掌管成員股份的買賣或成員的死亡或殘疾

這些都是在起草有限責任公司經營合同時需要考慮的重要因素。經營合同的基本目的是要反應公司主人和成員想要做生意的方針。所以公司合夥人要謹慎考慮公司管理的風險和糾紛是很重要的,爭取在還沒有發生前,做好預防準備。

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