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在美國推動創新

創新是在全球市場當中的競爭力的關鍵。是我們經濟活動的動力,推動具有更高工資的就業機會將相對提高了我們的生活品質。

20世紀當中,美國一直是全球退動創新的佼佼者。 但在2010年,根據歐洲工商管理學院的報告當中,美國在133個國家當中的全球創新指數(GII)下滑至第11位 。在2011年,有輕微回升,以第七位排名,然而這樣樂觀的情形卻是短暫的。在2012年,美國再次下跌,勉強在141個國家當中的排名佔據第十。

造就此問題的原因

儘管2008年的金融風暴打擊了全球經濟,但仍然不是造成工資多年來毫無提升,就業機會停滯,教育,尤其是在科學,技術,工程和數學(STEM)一直在下降等等現象的原因。換句話說,美國的創新明顯衰退。

究竟是什麼原因造成這樣的衰退?有些人認為,在九零年代後期,美國持有F-1簽證的外國學生大量湧入科學,技術,工程,藝術和數學等領域和博士學位等研究計劃而抑制了這些行業的工資,導致美國的學生必須向其他領域發展。美國教育計劃,在一般情況下可能也是原因之一,與其強調數學和科學,美國的基礎教育更著重於識字等基礎教育。大學和研究所不斷上漲的學費也是成因之一 。就企業層面來說,著重於利潤於研究和開發之上也是一個額外的因素,種種原因導致創新衰退。

使創新重新再上軌道

美國商會的報告提出了推動創新重新上軌的三個關鍵步驟 。首先,聯邦政府資助的研究和發展,必須與大學,研究機構和私營部門合作。其次,我們的教育制度應該培養學生具備在科學,技術,工程,藝術和數學等領域追求更高等教育的能力 。第三,我們需要發展足夠的基礎設施來提供新的商品和服務。

根據美國商務部,美國的競爭力與創新能力(2012年1月)的報告當種顯示,在科學,技術,工程和數學(STEM)領域當中的人員比起非科學,技術,工程和數學(STEM)的人員擁有約高出26%以上的收入。他們失業的機率較低。此外,在過去10年當中STEM領域也較非STEM領域有高出三倍的就業成長。

為了平衡教育層面在STEM領域當中的缺乏,聯邦政府正在努力使大學等高等教育讓人可以更容易負擔。政府的措施還包含擴大STEM教師團隊的規模和質量,教育學生和工作人員,鼓勵他們繼續升學。

同樣重要的法律程序也衰退的創新力而產生,如歐巴馬總統在2011年年底簽署的”萊希 – 史密斯美國發明法案”。該法案切換了美國專利權利規定,從以前的”率先發明”體制改為”第一提出發明”的系統專利申請。此外,2012年美國的減稅法案延長研發稅收抵免,被認為是創新力的催化劑,從2011年年底到2013年,許多立法也成立以幫助初創企業,稅收抵免一般不能採取信貸的優勢(因為它通常需要時間才能轉虧為贏)。 2013年啟動創新信貸法,案旨在為初創企業以信用作為就業稅的申請。

過渡期還是新常態?

創新是長期的經濟增長和創造新行業的關鍵,如無線,軟件和信息技術產業。這些行業,反之,僱用的人員也是高於平均收入的族群。重新強調創新能夠幫助美國重新成為創新能力的領袖。亦可能是,在一個真正的全球經濟體系中使增加創新為一種新的常態。無論如何,歡迎來到21世紀。

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